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September 11, 2023

Why Cyber Risk Quantification Needs a Trust Makeover?

With this blog, we begin the series dedicated to exploring the nuances of cyber risk quantification.

In the fast-evolving world of cybersecurity, trust is both a necessity and a challenge. CISOs routinely come across tools and techniques that promise effective Cyber Risk Quantification (CRQ). However, a lingering question remains: Can these methods truly be trusted? This sentiment is not isolated; in our conversations with prospects across various industries, we’ve found that dissatisfaction and confusion often surround current CRQ efforts.

Something’s not right: Why do CRQ efforts fail to inspire trust?

We spoke to dozens of Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) and Heads of Information Security and heard:

“We’re currently using manual and automated methods to identify and assess potential risks. Our team is focused on developing a methodology to quantify risk so that we can prioritize and address the most critical issues.” confided a CISO at a major U.S. automotive company.

“We’re dealing with around 15 tools, each producing a proprietary risk score. One of the most absurd suggestions I’ve heard is to simply add these scores together and take the average, even though these figures can be essentially meaningless.” – Security executive at a U.S. based Pharmaceutical major.

Most CRQ efforts are missing the mark due to a combination of reasons. First, the lack of a data-driven approach and reliance on manual processes are two key issues highlighted in the comments above, revealing confusion and distrust in current practices. Yet, the issues mentioned are only facets of a more significant problem. The rest of the challenges lie in:

  • Lack of Measurability – CRQ efforts often fail to accurately indicate where things are improving vs. where they are deteriorating.
  • Uninspectable Outcomes – CRQ efforts fail to explain the reasons behind the numbers, making gaining comprehensible insights from the data challenging.
  • Limited Actionability – While CRQ does generate data, it frequently fails to offer actionable intelligence capable of effectively mobilizing resources during critical vulnerabilities, such as in the log4j incident.
  • Inability to Drive Business Outcomes – CRQ efforts frequently fail to provide clear insights into the ROI of security programs and tools, hindering business leaders from making informed decisions.
  • Slows Down Operations – CRQ efforts hinder the efficiency of risk management by failing to assist in prioritizing vulnerabilities and gamifying risk reduction efforts.

Moreover, the challenge of implementing models like FAIR underscores the time-intensive and subjective nature of CRQ. Gathering the information for a given scenario analysis can be overwhelming, and it is often a point-in-time analysis rather than in real-time.

So What?: The Consequences of Non-Trustworthy CRQ

The trustworthiness of CRQ is not just a theoretical concern but has tangible implications.

  • Risk of Non-Compliance with SEC and other Regulatory Requirements
    • Without trustworthy CRQ, companies struggle to identify and mitigate material risks in line with the recent SEC regulation on governance and risk management related to cybersecurity.
  • Inadequate Reporting Impedes Decision-Making at the Highest Levels
    • Without a reliable CRQ, the pathway from inherent risk to residual risk and finally to the target level of risk becomes messy and unreliable, leading to misguided decisions by C-Suite and the Board.
  • Inability to Prioritize and Justify Cyber Spend:
    • Without precise quantification, the business case for funding cybersecurity falls apart. For instance, if a project’s $5m cost for a $25m risk reduction is not credibly quantified, the 5X returns cannot be trusted, undermining budgeting and ROI calculations.
  • Sub-Optimal Cyber Insurance Decisions Result in Financial Exposure
    • The inability to credibly present as a ‘low-risk profile’ due to non-trustworthy CRQ adversely affects negotiations with insurance carriers, leading to unfavorable terms for cyber insurance or flawed self-insurance decisions.
  • Erosion of Organizational Trust in Risk-Based Cybersecurity Approaches
    • When CRQ is not trustworthy, it becomes increasingly difficult to embed a risk-based approach to cybersecurity within an organization. Skepticism about the numbers further undermines the credibility of risk assessments and hampers organizational buy-in.


The negative consequences of non-trustworthy CRQ

How is Cyber Risk Quantified Today?- Exploring the Approaches

There are two main approaches: top-down and bottom-up.

The top-down approach utilizes scenarios and high-level assumptions to estimate risk in monetary terms at the enterprise level. The bottom-up approach focuses on detailed, asset-by-asset risk assessment, often requiring specialized methods like creating a DIY data lake to feed the risk model.

Think of the top-down approach, like viewing a completed puzzle from a distance. You can see the entire image, but the nuances of individual pieces might be lost. In contrast, the bottom-up approach is akin to examining and studying each puzzle piece before putting it into place, ensuring that every detail is understood but requiring more time and effort.

As is evident from the table, both the top-down and bottom-up approaches individually have significant advantages, but they also have weaknesses. We need a system that leverages the strengths of the top-down and bottom-up methods while negating their limitations. And this is where Balbix steps in.


Differences between top-down and bottom-up CRQ approaches
Differences between top-down and bottom-up CRQ approaches

Wrapping up:

This blog explores the trust deficit in current CRQ approaches, the ramifications of unreliable CRQ, and introduces the top-down and bottom-up approaches. In a landscape where trust in CRQ is fragile, it’s time for a fundamental shift. In the next blog, we will focus on how Balbix combines the best of top-down and bottom-up approaches. With Balbix’s CRQ solution, security leaders can unify their cybersecurity data into a unified, comprehensive cyber risk quantification model. In doing so, everyone – from security analysts to the board – is provided with a view of cyber risk in dollars.

If you want to learn more about the Balbix CRQ model and methodology and its benefits to your cybersecurity posture management, please sign up for a 30-minute demo.